Pandoc   a universal document converter

# Synopsis

pandoc [options] [input-file]…

# Description

Pandoc is a Haskell library for converting from one markup format to another, and a command-line tool that uses this library.

Pandoc can convert between numerous markup and word processing formats, including, but not limited to, various flavors of Markdown, HTML, LaTeX and Word docx. For the full lists of input and output formats, see the --from and --to options below. Pandoc can also produce PDF output: see creating a PDF, below.

Pandoc’s enhanced version of Markdown includes syntax for tables, definition lists, metadata blocks, footnotes, citations, math, and much more. See below under Pandoc’s Markdown.

Pandoc has a modular design: it consists of a set of readers, which parse text in a given format and produce a native representation of the document (an abstract syntax tree or AST), and a set of writers, which convert this native representation into a target format. Thus, adding an input or output format requires only adding a reader or writer. Users can also run custom pandoc filters to modify the intermediate AST.

Because pandoc’s intermediate representation of a document is less expressive than many of the formats it converts between, one should not expect perfect conversions between every format and every other. Pandoc attempts to preserve the structural elements of a document, but not formatting details such as margin size. And some document elements, such as complex tables, may not fit into pandoc’s simple document model. While conversions from pandoc’s Markdown to all formats aspire to be perfect, conversions from formats more expressive than pandoc’s Markdown can be expected to be lossy.

## Using pandoc

If no input-files are specified, input is read from stdin. Output goes to stdout by default. For output to a file, use the -o option:

pandoc -o output.html input.txt

By default, pandoc produces a document fragment. To produce a standalone document (e.g. a valid HTML file including <head> and <body>), use the -s or --standalone flag:

pandoc -s -o output.html input.txt

For more information on how standalone documents are produced, see Templates below.

If multiple input files are given, pandoc will concatenate them all (with blank lines between them) before parsing. (Use --file-scope to parse files individually.)

## Specifying formats

The format of the input and output can be specified explicitly using command-line options. The input format can be specified using the -f/--from option, the output format using the -t/--to option. Thus, to convert hello.txt from Markdown to LaTeX, you could type:

pandoc -f markdown -t latex hello.txt

To convert hello.html from HTML to Markdown:

pandoc -f html -t markdown hello.html

Supported input and output formats are listed below under Options (see -f for input formats and -t for output formats). You can also use pandoc --list-input-formats and pandoc --list-output-formats to print lists of supported formats.

If the input or output format is not specified explicitly, pandoc will attempt to guess it from the extensions of the filenames. Thus, for example,

pandoc -o hello.tex hello.txt

will convert hello.txt from Markdown to LaTeX. If no output file is specified (so that output goes to stdout), or if the output file’s extension is unknown, the output format will default to HTML. If no input file is specified (so that input comes from stdin), or if the input files’ extensions are unknown, the input format will be assumed to be Markdown.

## Character encoding

Pandoc uses the UTF-8 character encoding for both input and output. If your local character encoding is not UTF-8, you should pipe input and output through iconv:

iconv -t utf-8 input.txt | pandoc | iconv -f utf-8

Note that in some output formats (such as HTML, LaTeX, ConTeXt, RTF, OPML, DocBook, and Texinfo), information about the character encoding is included in the document header, which will only be included if you use the -s/--standalone option.

## Creating a PDF

To produce a PDF, specify an output file with a .pdf extension:

pandoc test.txt -o test.pdf

By default, pandoc will use LaTeX to create the PDF, which requires that a LaTeX engine be installed (see --pdf-engine below).

Alternatively, pandoc can use ConTeXt, pdfroff, or any of the following HTML/CSS-to-PDF-engines, to create a PDF: wkhtmltopdf, weasyprint or prince. To do this, specify an output file with a .pdf extension, as before, but add the --pdf-engine option or -t context, -t html, or -t ms to the command line (-t html defaults to --pdf-engine=wkhtmltopdf).

PDF output uses variables for LaTeX (with a LaTeX engine); variables for ConTeXt (with ConTeXt); or variables for wkhtmltopdf (an HTML/CSS-to-PDF engine; --css also affects the output).

To debug the PDF creation, it can be useful to look at the intermediate representation: instead of -o test.pdf, use for example -s -o test.tex to output the generated LaTeX. You can then test it with pdflatex test.tex.

When using LaTeX, the following packages need to be available (they are included with all recent versions of TeX Live): amsfonts, amsmath, lm, unicode-math, ifxetex, ifluatex, listings (if the --listings option is used), fancyvrb, longtable, booktabs, graphicx and grffile (if the document contains images), hyperref, xcolor, ulem, geometry (with the geometry variable set), setspace (with linestretch), and babel (with lang). The use of xelatex or lualatex as the PDF engine requires fontspec. xelatex uses polyglossia (with lang), xecjk, and bidi (with the dir variable set). If the mathspec variable is set, xelatex will use mathspec instead of unicode-math. The upquote and microtype packages are used if available, and csquotes will be used for typography if \usepackage{csquotes} is present in the template or included via /H/--include-in-header. The natbib, biblatex, bibtex, and biber packages can optionally be used for citation rendering. The following packages will be used to improve output quality if present, but pandoc does not require them to be present: upquote (for straight quotes in verbatim environments), microtype (for better spacing adjustments), parskip (for better inter-paragraph spaces), xurl (for better line breaks in URLs), bookmark (for better PDF bookmarks), and footnotehyper or footnote (to allow footnotes in tables).

Instead of an input file, an absolute URI may be given. In this case pandoc will fetch the content using HTTP:

pandoc -f html -t markdown http://www.fsf.org

It is possible to supply a custom User-Agent string or other header when requesting a document from a URL:

pandoc -f html -t markdown --request-header User-Agent:"Mozilla/5.0" \
http://www.fsf.org

# Options

## General options

-f FORMAT, -r FORMAT, --from=FORMAT, --read=FORMAT

Specify input format. FORMAT can be:

Extensions can be individually enabled or disabled by appending +EXTENSION or -EXTENSION to the format name. See Extensions below, for a list of extensions and their names. See --list-input-formats and --list-extensions, below.

-t FORMAT, -w FORMAT, --to=FORMAT, --write=FORMAT

Specify output format. FORMAT can be:

Note that odt, docx, and epub output will not be directed to stdout unless forced with -o -.

Extensions can be individually enabled or disabled by appending +EXTENSION or -EXTENSION to the format name. See Extensions below, for a list of extensions and their names. See --list-output-formats and --list-extensions, below.

-o FILE, --output=FILE

Write output to FILE instead of stdout. If FILE is -, output will go to stdout, even if a non-textual format (docx, odt, epub2, epub3) is specified.

--data-dir=DIRECTORY

Specify the user data directory to search for pandoc data files. If this option is not specified, the default user data directory will be used. On *nix and macOS systems this will be the pandoc subdirectory of the XDG data directory (by default, $HOME/.local/share, overridable by setting the XDG_DATA_HOME environment variable). If that directory does not exist,$HOME/.pandoc will be used (for backwards compatibility). In Windows the default user data directory is C:\Users\USERNAME\AppData\Roaming\pandoc. You can find the default user data directory on your system by looking at the output of pandoc --version. A reference.odt, reference.docx, epub.css, templates, slidy, slideous, or s5 directory placed in this directory will override pandoc’s normal defaults.

--bash-completion

Generate a bash completion script. To enable bash completion with pandoc, add this to your .bashrc:

eval "$(pandoc --bash-completion)" --verbose Give verbose debugging output. Currently this only has an effect with PDF output. --quiet Suppress warning messages. --fail-if-warnings Exit with error status if there are any warnings. --log=FILE Write log messages in machine-readable JSON format to FILE. All messages above DEBUG level will be written, regardless of verbosity settings (--verbose, --quiet). --list-input-formats List supported input formats, one per line. --list-output-formats List supported output formats, one per line. --list-extensions[=FORMAT] List supported extensions, one per line, preceded by a + or - indicating whether it is enabled by default in FORMAT. If FORMAT is not specified, defaults for pandoc’s Markdown are given. --list-highlight-languages List supported languages for syntax highlighting, one per line. --list-highlight-styles List supported styles for syntax highlighting, one per line. See --highlight-style. -v, --version Print version. -h, --help Show usage message. ## Reader options --base-header-level=NUMBER Specify the base level for headings (defaults to 1). --strip-empty-paragraphs Deprecated. Use the +empty_paragraphs extension instead. Ignore paragraphs with no content. This option is useful for converting word processing documents where users have used empty paragraphs to create inter-paragraph space. --indented-code-classes=CLASSES Specify classes to use for indented code blocks–for example, perl,numberLines or haskell. Multiple classes may be separated by spaces or commas. --default-image-extension=EXTENSION Specify a default extension to use when image paths/URLs have no extension. This allows you to use the same source for formats that require different kinds of images. Currently this option only affects the Markdown and LaTeX readers. --file-scope Parse each file individually before combining for multifile documents. This will allow footnotes in different files with the same identifiers to work as expected. If this option is set, footnotes and links will not work across files. Reading binary files (docx, odt, epub) implies --file-scope. -F PROGRAM, --filter=PROGRAM Specify an executable to be used as a filter transforming the pandoc AST after the input is parsed and before the output is written. The executable should read JSON from stdin and write JSON to stdout. The JSON must be formatted like pandoc’s own JSON input and output. The name of the output format will be passed to the filter as the first argument. Hence, pandoc --filter ./caps.py -t latex is equivalent to pandoc -t json | ./caps.py latex | pandoc -f json -t latex The latter form may be useful for debugging filters. Filters may be written in any language. Text.Pandoc.JSON exports toJSONFilter to facilitate writing filters in Haskell. Those who would prefer to write filters in python can use the module pandocfilters, installable from PyPI. There are also pandoc filter libraries in PHP, perl, and JavaScript/node.js. In order of preference, pandoc will look for filters in 1. a specified full or relative path (executable or non-executable) 2.$DATADIR/filters (executable or non-executable) where $DATADIR is the user data directory (see --data-dir, above). 3.$PATH (executable only)

Filters and lua-filters are applied in the order specified on the command line.

--lua-filter=SCRIPT

Transform the document in a similar fashion as JSON filters (see --filter), but use pandoc’s build-in lua filtering system. The given lua script is expected to return a list of lua filters which will be applied in order. Each lua filter must contain element-transforming functions indexed by the name of the AST element on which the filter function should be applied.

The pandoc lua module provides helper functions for element creation. It is always loaded into the script’s lua environment.

The following is an example lua script for macro-expansion:

function expand_hello_world(inline)
if inline.c == '{{helloworld}}' then
return pandoc.Emph{ pandoc.Str "Hello, World" }
else
return inline
end
end

return {{Str = expand_hello_world}}

In order of preference, pandoc will look for lua filters in

1. a specified full or relative path (executable or non-executable)

2. $DATADIR/filters (executable or non-executable) where$DATADIR is the user data directory (see --data-dir, above).

Set the metadata field KEY to the value VAL. A value specified on the command line overrides a value specified in the document using YAML metadata blocks. Values will be parsed as YAML boolean or string values. If no value is specified, the value will be treated as Boolean true. Like --variable, --metadata causes template variables to be set. But unlike --variable, --metadata affects the metadata of the underlying document (which is accessible from filters and may be printed in some output formats) and metadata values will be escaped when inserted into the template.

Read metadata from the supplied YAML (or JSON) file. This option can be used with every input format, but string scalars in the YAML file will always be parsed as Markdown. Generally, the input will be handled the same as in YAML metadata blocks. Metadata values specified inside the document, or by using -M, overwrite values specified with this option.

-p, --preserve-tabs

Preserve tabs instead of converting them to spaces (the default). Note that this will only affect tabs in literal code spans and code blocks; tabs in regular text will be treated as spaces.

--tab-stop=NUMBER

Specify the number of spaces per tab (default is 4).

--track-changes=accept|reject|all

Specifies what to do with insertions, deletions, and comments produced by the MS Word “Track Changes” feature. accept (the default), inserts all insertions, and ignores all deletions. reject inserts all deletions and ignores insertions. Both accept and reject ignore comments. all puts in insertions, deletions, and comments, wrapped in spans with insertion, deletion, comment-start, and comment-end classes, respectively. The author and time of change is included. all is useful for scripting: only accepting changes from a certain reviewer, say, or before a certain date. If a paragraph is inserted or deleted, track-changes=all produces a span with the class paragraph-insertion/paragraph-deletion before the affected paragraph break. This option only affects the docx reader.

--extract-media=DIR

Extract images and other media contained in or linked from the source document to the path DIR, creating it if necessary, and adjust the images references in the document so they point to the extracted files. If the source format is a binary container (docx, epub, or odt), the media is extracted from the container and the original filenames are used. Otherwise the media is read from the file system or downloaded, and new filenames are constructed based on SHA1 hashes of the contents.

--abbreviations=FILE

Specifies a custom abbreviations file, with abbreviations one to a line. If this option is not specified, pandoc will read the data file abbreviations from the user data directory or fall back on a system default. To see the system default, use pandoc --print-default-data-file=abbreviations. The only use pandoc makes of this list is in the Markdown reader. Strings ending in a period that are found in this list will be followed by a nonbreaking space, so that the period will not produce sentence-ending space in formats like LaTeX.

## General writer options

-s, --standalone

Produce output with an appropriate header and footer (e.g. a standalone HTML, LaTeX, TEI, or RTF file, not a fragment). This option is set automatically for pdf, epub, epub3, fb2, docx, and odt output. For native output, this option causes metadata to be included; otherwise, metadata is suppressed.

--template=FILE|URL

Use the specified file as a custom template for the generated document. Implies --standalone. See Templates, below, for a description of template syntax. If no extension is specified, an extension corresponding to the writer will be added, so that --template=special looks for special.html for HTML output. If the template is not found, pandoc will search for it in the templates subdirectory of the user data directory (see --data-dir). If this option is not used, a default template appropriate for the output format will be used (see -D/--print-default-template).

-V KEY[=VAL], --variable=KEY[:VAL]

Set the template variable KEY to the value VAL when rendering the document in standalone mode. This is generally only useful when the --template option is used to specify a custom template, since pandoc automatically sets the variables used in the default templates. If no VAL is specified, the key will be given the value true.

-D FORMAT, --print-default-template=FORMAT

Print the system default template for an output FORMAT. (See -t for a list of possible FORMATs.) Templates in the user data directory are ignored. This option may be used with -o/--output to redirect output to a file, but -o/--output must come before --print-default-template on the command line.

--print-default-data-file=FILE

Print a system default data file. Files in the user data directory are ignored. This option may be used with -o/--output to redirect output to a file, but -o/--output must come before --print-default-data-file on the command line.

--eol=crlf|lf|native

Manually specify line endings: crlf (Windows), lf (macOS/Linux/UNIX), or native (line endings appropriate to the OS on which pandoc is being run). The default is native.

--dpi=NUMBER

Specify the dpi (dots per inch) value for conversion from pixels to inch/centimeters and vice versa. The default is 96dpi. Technically, the correct term would be ppi (pixels per inch).

--wrap=auto|none|preserve

Determine how text is wrapped in the output (the source code, not the rendered version). With auto (the default), pandoc will attempt to wrap lines to the column width specified by --columns (default 72). With none, pandoc will not wrap lines at all. With preserve, pandoc will attempt to preserve the wrapping from the source document (that is, where there are nonsemantic newlines in the source, there will be nonsemantic newlines in the output as well). Automatic wrapping does not currently work in HTML output. In ipynb output, this option affects wrapping of the contents of markdown cells.

--columns=NUMBER

Specify length of lines in characters. This affects text wrapping in the generated source code (see --wrap). It also affects calculation of column widths for plain text tables (see Tables below).

--toc, --table-of-contents

Include an automatically generated table of contents (or, in the case of latex, context, docx, odt, opendocument, rst, or ms, an instruction to create one) in the output document. This option has no effect unless -s/--standalone is used, and it has no effect on man, docbook4, docbook5, or jats output.

Note that if you are producing a PDF via ms, the table of contents will appear at the beginning of the document, before the title. If you would prefer it to be at the end of the document, use the option --pdf-engine-opt=--no-toc-relocation.

--toc-depth=NUMBER

Specify the number of section levels to include in the table of contents. The default is 3 (which means that level-1, 2, and 3 headings will be listed in the contents).

Strip out HTML comments in the Markdown or Textile source, rather than passing them on to Markdown, Textile or HTML output as raw HTML. This does not apply to HTML comments inside raw HTML blocks when the markdown_in_html_blocks extension is not set.

--no-highlight

Disables syntax highlighting for code blocks and inlines, even when a language attribute is given.

--highlight-style=STYLE|FILE

Specifies the coloring style to be used in highlighted source code. Options are pygments (the default), kate, monochrome, breezeDark, espresso, zenburn, haddock, and tango. For more information on syntax highlighting in pandoc, see Syntax highlighting, below. See also --list-highlight-styles.

Instead of a STYLE name, a JSON file with extension .theme may be supplied. This will be parsed as a KDE syntax highlighting theme and (if valid) used as the highlighting style.

To generate the JSON version of an existing style, use --print-highlight-style.

--print-highlight-style=STYLE|FILE

Prints a JSON version of a highlighting style, which can be modified, saved with a .theme extension, and used with --highlight-style. This option may be used with -o/--output to redirect output to a file, but -o/--output must come before --print-highlight-style on the command line.

--syntax-definition=FILE

Instructs pandoc to load a KDE XML syntax definition file, which will be used for syntax highlighting of appropriately marked code blocks. This can be used to add support for new languages or to use altered syntax definitions for existing languages.

Include contents of FILE, verbatim, at the end of the header. This can be used, for example, to include special CSS or JavaScript in HTML documents. This option can be used repeatedly to include multiple files in the header. They will be included in the order specified. Implies --standalone.

-B FILE, --include-before-body=FILE|URL

Include contents of FILE, verbatim, at the beginning of the document body (e.g. after the <body> tag in HTML, or the \begin{document} command in LaTeX). This can be used to include navigation bars or banners in HTML documents. This option can be used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the order specified. Implies --standalone.

-A FILE, --include-after-body=FILE|URL

Include contents of FILE, verbatim, at the end of the document body (before the </body> tag in HTML, or the \end{document} command in LaTeX). This option can be used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the order specified. Implies --standalone.

--resource-path=SEARCHPATH

List of paths to search for images and other resources. The paths should be separated by : on Linux, UNIX, and macOS systems, and by ; on Windows. If --resource-path is not specified, the default resource path is the working directory. Note that, if --resource-path is specified, the working directory must be explicitly listed or it will not be searched. For example: --resource-path=.:test will search the working directory and the test subdirectory, in that order.

--resource-path only has an effect if (a) the output format embeds images (for example, docx, pdf, or html with --self-contained) or (b) it is used together with --extract-media.

Set the request header NAME to the value VAL when making HTTP requests (for example, when a URL is given on the command line, or when resources used in a document must be downloaded). If you’re behind a proxy, you also need to set the environment variable http_proxy to http://....

## Options affecting specific writers

--self-contained

Produce a standalone HTML file with no external dependencies, using data: URIs to incorporate the contents of linked scripts, stylesheets, images, and videos. Implies --standalone. The resulting file should be “self-contained,” in the sense that it needs no external files and no net access to be displayed properly by a browser. This option works only with HTML output formats, including html4, html5, html+lhs, html5+lhs, s5, slidy, slideous, dzslides, and revealjs. Scripts, images, and stylesheets at absolute URLs will be downloaded; those at relative URLs will be sought relative to the working directory (if the first source file is local) or relative to the base URL (if the first source file is remote). Elements with the attribute data-external="1" will be left alone; the documents they link to will not be incorporated in the document. Limitation: resources that are loaded dynamically through JavaScript cannot be incorporated; as a result, --self-contained does not work with --mathjax, and some advanced features (e.g. zoom or speaker notes) may not work in an offline “self-contained” reveal.js slide show.

--html-q-tags

Use <q> tags for quotes in HTML.

--ascii

Use only ASCII characters in output. Currently supported for XML and HTML formats (which use entities instead of UTF-8 when this option is selected), CommonMark, gfm, and Markdown (which use entities), roff ms (which use hexadecimal escapes), and to a limited degree LaTeX (which uses standard commands for accented characters when possible). roff man output uses ASCII by default.

Use reference-style links, rather than inline links, in writing Markdown or reStructuredText. By default inline links are used. The placement of link references is affected by the --reference-location option.

--reference-location = block|section|document

Specify whether footnotes (and references, if reference-links is set) are placed at the end of the current (top-level) block, the current section, or the document. The default is document. Currently only affects the markdown writer.

Use ATX-style headings in Markdown output. The default is to use setext-style headings for levels 1 to 2, and then ATX headings. (Note: for gfm output, ATX headings are always used.) This option also affects markdown cells in ipynb output.

--top-level-division=[default|section|chapter|part]

Treat top-level headings as the given division type in LaTeX, ConTeXt, DocBook, and TEI output. The hierarchy order is part, chapter, then section; all headings are shifted such that the top-level heading becomes the specified type. The default behavior is to determine the best division type via heuristics: unless other conditions apply, section is chosen. When the LaTeX document class is set to report, book, or memoir (unless the article option is specified), chapter is implied as the setting for this option. If beamer is the output format, specifying either chapter or part will cause top-level headings to become \part{..}, while second-level headings remain as their default type.

-N, --number-sections

Number section headings in LaTeX, ConTeXt, HTML, or EPUB output. By default, sections are not numbered. Sections with class unnumbered will never be numbered, even if --number-sections is specified.

--number-offset=NUMBER[,NUMBER,]

Offset for section headings in HTML output (ignored in other output formats). The first number is added to the section number for top-level headings, the second for second-level headings, and so on. So, for example, if you want the first top-level heading in your document to be numbered “6”, specify --number-offset=5. If your document starts with a level-2 heading which you want to be numbered “1.5”, specify --number-offset=1,4. Offsets are 0 by default. Implies --number-sections.

--listings

Use the listings package for LaTeX code blocks. The package does not support multi-byte encoding for source code. To handle UTF-8 you would need to use a custom template. This issue is fully documented here: Encoding issue with the listings package.

-i, --incremental

Make list items in slide shows display incrementally (one by one). The default is for lists to be displayed all at once.

--slide-level=NUMBER

Specifies that headings with the specified level create slides (for beamer, s5, slidy, slideous, dzslides). Headings above this level in the hierarchy are used to divide the slide show into sections; headings below this level create subheads within a slide. Note that content that is not contained under slide-level headings will not appear in the slide show. The default is to set the slide level based on the contents of the document; see Structuring the slide show.

--section-divs

Wrap sections in <section> tags (or <div> tags for html4), and attach identifiers to the enclosing <section> (or <div>) rather than the heading itself. See Heading identifiers, below.

--email-obfuscation=none|javascript|references

Specify a method for obfuscating mailto: links in HTML documents. none leaves mailto: links as they are. javascript obfuscates them using JavaScript. references obfuscates them by printing their letters as decimal or hexadecimal character references. The default is none.

--id-prefix=STRING

Specify a prefix to be added to all identifiers and internal links in HTML and DocBook output, and to footnote numbers in Markdown and Haddock output. This is useful for preventing duplicate identifiers when generating fragments to be included in other pages.

-T STRING, --title-prefix=STRING

Specify STRING as a prefix at the beginning of the title that appears in the HTML header (but not in the title as it appears at the beginning of the HTML body). Implies --standalone.

-c URL, --css=URL

Link to a CSS style sheet. This option can be used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the order specified.

A stylesheet is required for generating EPUB. If none is provided using this option (or the css or stylesheet metadata fields), pandoc will look for a file epub.css in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If it is not found there, sensible defaults will be used.

--reference-doc=FILE

Use the specified file as a style reference in producing a docx or ODT file.

Docx

For best results, the reference docx should be a modified version of a docx file produced using pandoc. The contents of the reference docx are ignored, but its stylesheets and document properties (including margins, page size, header, and footer) are used in the new docx. If no reference docx is specified on the command line, pandoc will look for a file reference.docx in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If this is not found either, sensible defaults will be used.

To produce a custom reference.docx, first get a copy of the default reference.docx: pandoc -o custom-reference.docx --print-default-data-file reference.docx. Then open custom-reference.docx in Word, modify the styles as you wish, and save the file. For best results, do not make changes to this file other than modifying the styles used by pandoc:

Paragraph styles:

• Normal
• Body Text
• First Paragraph
• Compact
• Title
• Subtitle
• Author
• Date
• Abstract
• Bibliography
• Block Text
• Footnote Text
• Definition Term
• Definition
• Caption
• Table Caption
• Image Caption
• Figure
• Captioned Figure

Character styles:

• Default Paragraph Font
• Body Text Char
• Verbatim Char
• Footnote Reference

Table style:

• Table
ODT

For best results, the reference ODT should be a modified version of an ODT produced using pandoc. The contents of the reference ODT are ignored, but its stylesheets are used in the new ODT. If no reference ODT is specified on the command line, pandoc will look for a file reference.odt in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If this is not found either, sensible defaults will be used.

To produce a custom reference.odt, first get a copy of the default reference.odt: pandoc -o custom-reference.odt --print-default-data-file reference.odt. Then open custom-reference.odt in LibreOffice, modify the styles as you wish, and save the file.

PowerPoint

Templates included with Microsoft PowerPoint 2013 (either with .pptx or .potx extension) are known to work, as are most templates derived from these.

The specific requirement is that the template should begin with the following first four layouts:

1. Title Slide
2. Title and Content
4. Two Content

All templates included with a recent version of MS PowerPoint will fit these criteria. (You can click on Layout under the Home menu to check.)

You can also modify the default reference.pptx: first run pandoc -o custom-reference.pptx --print-default-data-file reference.pptx, and then modify custom-reference.pptx in MS PowerPoint (pandoc will use the first four layout slides, as mentioned above).

--epub-cover-image=FILE

Use the specified image as the EPUB cover. It is recommended that the image be less than 1000px in width and height. Note that in a Markdown source document you can also specify cover-image in a YAML metadata block (see EPUB Metadata, below).

Look in the specified XML file for metadata for the EPUB. The file should contain a series of Dublin Core elements. For example:

<dc:rights>Creative Commons</dc:rights>
<dc:language>es-AR</dc:language>

By default, pandoc will include the following metadata elements: <dc:title> (from the document title), <dc:creator> (from the document authors), <dc:date> (from the document date, which should be in ISO 8601 format), <dc:language> (from the lang variable, or, if is not set, the locale), and <dc:identifier id="BookId"> (a randomly generated UUID). Any of these may be overridden by elements in the metadata file.

Note: if the source document is Markdown, a YAML metadata block in the document can be used instead. See below under EPUB Metadata.

--epub-embed-font=FILE

Embed the specified font in the EPUB. This option can be repeated to embed multiple fonts. Wildcards can also be used: for example, DejaVuSans-*.ttf. However, if you use wildcards on the command line, be sure to escape them or put the whole filename in single quotes, to prevent them from being interpreted by the shell. To use the embedded fonts, you will need to add declarations like the following to your CSS (see --css):

@font-face {
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: normal;
font-weight: normal;
src:url("DejaVuSans-Regular.ttf");
}
@font-face {
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: normal;
font-weight: bold;
src:url("DejaVuSans-Bold.ttf");
}
@font-face {
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: italic;
font-weight: normal;
src:url("DejaVuSans-Oblique.ttf");
}
@font-face {
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: italic;
font-weight: bold;
src:url("DejaVuSans-BoldOblique.ttf");
}
body { font-family: "DejaVuSans"; }
--epub-chapter-level=NUMBER

Specify the heading level at which to split the EPUB into separate “chapter” files. The default is to split into chapters at level-1 headings. This option only affects the internal composition of the EPUB, not the way chapters and sections are displayed to users. Some readers may be slow if the chapter files are too large, so for large documents with few level-1 headings, one might want to use a chapter level of 2 or 3.

--epub-subdirectory=DIRNAME

Specify the subdirectory in the OCF container that is to hold the EPUB-specific contents. The default is EPUB. To put the EPUB contents in the top level, use an empty string.

--ipynb-output=all|none|best

Determines how ipynb output cells are treated. all means that all of the data formats included in the original are preserved. none means that the contents of data cells are omitted. best causes pandoc to try to pick the richest data block in each output cell that is compatible with the output format. The default is best.

--pdf-engine=PROGRAM

Use the specified engine when producing PDF output. Valid values are pdflatex, lualatex, xelatex, latexmk, tectonic, wkhtmltopdf, weasyprint, prince, context, and pdfroff. The default is pdflatex. If the engine is not in your PATH, the full path of the engine may be specified here.

--pdf-engine-opt=STRING

Use the given string as a command-line argument to the pdf-engine. For example, to use a persistent directory foo for latexmk’s auxiliary files, use --pdf-engine-opt=-outdir=foo. Note that no check for duplicate options is done.

## Citation rendering

--bibliography=FILE

Set the bibliography field in the document’s metadata to FILE, overriding any value set in the metadata, and process citations using pandoc-citeproc. (This is equivalent to --metadata bibliography=FILE --filter pandoc-citeproc.) If --natbib or --biblatex is also supplied, pandoc-citeproc is not used, making this equivalent to --metadata bibliography=FILE. If you supply this argument multiple times, each FILE will be added to bibliography.

--csl=FILE

Set the csl field in the document’s metadata to FILE, overriding any value set in the metadata. (This is equivalent to --metadata csl=FILE.) This option is only relevant with pandoc-citeproc.

--citation-abbreviations=FILE

Set the citation-abbreviations field in the document’s metadata to FILE, overriding any value set in the metadata. (This is equivalent to --metadata citation-abbreviations=FILE.) This option is only relevant with pandoc-citeproc.

--natbib

Use natbib for citations in LaTeX output. This option is not for use with the pandoc-citeproc filter or with PDF output. It is intended for use in producing a LaTeX file that can be processed with bibtex.

--biblatex

Use biblatex for citations in LaTeX output. This option is not for use with the pandoc-citeproc filter or with PDF output. It is intended for use in producing a LaTeX file that can be processed with bibtex or biber.

## Math rendering in HTML

The default is to render TeX math as far as possible using Unicode characters. Formulas are put inside a span with class="math", so that they may be styled differently from the surrounding text if needed. However, this gives acceptable results only for basic math, usually you will want to use --mathjax or another of the following options.

--mathjax[=URL]

Use MathJax to display embedded TeX math in HTML output. TeX math will be put between $$...$$ (for inline math) or $...$ (for display math) and wrapped in <span> tags with class math. Then the MathJax JavaScript will render it. The URL should point to the MathJax.js load script. If a URL is not provided, a link to the Cloudflare CDN will be inserted.

--mathml

Convert TeX math to MathML (in epub3, docbook4, docbook5, jats, html4 and html5). This is the default in odt output. Note that currently only Firefox and Safari (and select e-book readers) natively support MathML.

--webtex[=URL]

Convert TeX formulas to <img> tags that link to an external script that converts formulas to images. The formula will be URL-encoded and concatenated with the URL provided. For SVG images you can for example use --webtex https://latex.codecogs.com/svg.latex?. If no URL is specified, the CodeCogs URL generating PNGs will be used (https://latex.codecogs.com/png.latex?). Note: the --webtex option will affect Markdown output as well as HTML, which is useful if you’re targeting a version of Markdown without native math support.

--katex[=URL]

Use KaTeX to display embedded TeX math in HTML output. The URL is the base URL for the KaTeX library. That directory should contain a katex.min.js and a katex.min.css file. If a URL is not provided, a link to the KaTeX CDN will be inserted.

Enclose TeX math in <eq> tags in HTML output. The resulting HTML can then be processed by GladTeX to produce images of the typeset formulas and an HTML file with links to these images. So, the procedure is:

pandoc -s --gladtex input.md -o myfile.htex
# produces myfile.html and images in myfile-images

## Options for wrapper scripts

--dump-args

Print information about command-line arguments to stdout, then exit. This option is intended primarily for use in wrapper scripts. The first line of output contains the name of the output file specified with the -o option, or - (for stdout) if no output file was specified. The remaining lines contain the command-line arguments, one per line, in the order they appear. These do not include regular pandoc options and their arguments, but do include any options appearing after a -- separator at the end of the line.

--ignore-args

Ignore command-line arguments (for use in wrapper scripts). Regular pandoc options are not ignored. Thus, for example,

pandoc --ignore-args -o foo.html -s foo.txt -- -e latin1

is equivalent to

pandoc -o foo.html -s

# Templates

When the -s/--standalone option is used, pandoc uses a template to add header and footer material that is needed for a self-standing document. To see the default template that is used, just type

pandoc -D *FORMAT*

where FORMAT is the name of the output format. A custom template can be specified using the --template option. You can also override the system default templates for a given output format FORMAT by putting a file templates/default.*FORMAT* in the user data directory (see --data-dir, above). Exceptions:

• For odt output, customize the default.opendocument template.
• For pdf output, customize the default.latex template (or the default.context template, if you use -t context, or the default.ms template, if you use -t ms, or the default.html template, if you use -t html).
• docx and pptx have no template (however, you can use --reference-doc to customize the output).

Templates contain variables, which allow for the inclusion of arbitrary information at any point in the file. They may be set at the command line using the -V/--variable option. If a variable is not set, pandoc will look for the key in the document’s metadata – which can be set using either YAML metadata blocks or with the -M/--metadata option.

title, author, date

allow identification of basic aspects of the document. Included in PDF metadata through LaTeX and ConTeXt. These can be set through a pandoc title block, which allows for multiple authors, or through a YAML metadata block:

---
author:
- Aristotle
- Peter Abelard
...

Note that if you just want to set PDF or HTML metadata, without including a title block in the document itself, you can set the title-meta, author-meta, and date-meta variables. (By default these are set automatically, based on title, author, and date.)

subtitle
document subtitle, included in HTML, EPUB, LaTeX, ConTeXt, and docx documents
abstract
document summary, included in LaTeX, ConTeXt, AsciiDoc, and docx documents
keywords
list of keywords to be included in HTML, PDF, ODT, pptx, docx and AsciiDoc metadata; repeat as for author, above
subject
document subject, included in ODT, PDF, docx and pptx metadata
description
category
document category, included in docx and pptx metadata

---
title:  'This is the title'
subtitle: "This is the subtitle"
author:
- Author One
- Author Two
description: |
This is a long
description.

It consists of two paragraphs
...

will include title, author and description as standard document properties and subtitle as a custom property when converting to docx, ODT or pptx.

## Language variables

lang

identifies the main language of the document using IETF language tags (following the BCP 47 standard), such as en or en-GB. The Language subtag lookup tool can look up or verify these tags. This affects most formats, and controls hyphenation in PDF output when using LaTeX (through babel and polyglossia) or ConTeXt.

Use native pandoc Divs and Spans with the lang attribute to switch the language:

---
lang: en-GB
...

Text in the main document language (British English).

::: {lang=fr-CA}
> Cette citation est écrite en français canadien.
:::

More text in English. ['Zitat auf Deutsch.']{lang=de}
dir

the base script direction, either rtl (right-to-left) or ltr (left-to-right).

For bidirectional documents, native pandoc spans and divs with the dir attribute (value rtl or ltr) can be used to override the base direction in some output formats. This may not always be necessary if the final renderer (e.g. the browser, when generating HTML) supports the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm.

When using LaTeX for bidirectional documents, only the xelatex engine is fully supported (use --pdf-engine=xelatex).

## Variables for HTML slides

These affect HTML output when producing slide shows with pandoc. All reveal.js configuration options are available as variables.

revealjs-url
base URL for reveal.js documents (defaults to reveal.js)
s5-url
base URL for S5 documents (defaults to s5/default)
slidy-url
base URL for Slidy documents (defaults to https://www.w3.org/Talks/Tools/Slidy2)
slideous-url
base URL for Slideous documents (defaults to slideous)

## Variables for Beamer slides

These variables change the appearance of PDF slides using beamer.

aspectratio
slide aspect ratio (43 for 4:3 [default], 169 for 16:9, 1610 for 16:10, 149 for 14:9, 141 for 1.41:1, 54 for 5:4, 32 for 3:2)
beamerarticle
produce an article from Beamer slides
beameroption
add extra beamer option with \setbeameroption{}
institute
author affiliations: can be a list when there are multiple authors
logo
logo image for slides
controls navigation symbols (default is empty for no navigation symbols; other valid values are frame, vertical, and horizontal)
section-titles
enables “title pages” for new sections (default is true)
theme, colortheme, fonttheme, innertheme, outertheme
beamer themes:
themeoptions
options for LaTeX beamer themes (a list).
titlegraphic
image for title slide

## Variables for LaTeX

Pandoc uses these variables when creating a PDF with a LaTeX engine.

### Layout

make \paragraph and \subparagraph (fourth- and fifth-level headings, or fifth- and sixth-level with book classes) free-standing rather than run-in; requires further formatting to distinguish from \subsubsection (third- or fourth-level headings). Instead of using this option, KOMA-Script can adjust headings more extensively:

---
documentclass: scrartcl
\RedeclareSectionCommand[
beforeskip=-10pt plus -2pt minus -1pt,
afterskip=1sp plus -1sp minus 1sp,
font=\normalfont\itshape]{paragraph}
\RedeclareSectionCommand[
beforeskip=-10pt plus -2pt minus -1pt,
afterskip=1sp plus -1sp minus 1sp,
font=\normalfont\scshape,
indent=0pt]{subparagraph}
...
classoption

option for document class, e.g. oneside; repeat for multiple options:

---
classoption:
- twocolumn
- landscape
...
documentclass
document class: usually one of the standard classes, article, book, and report; the KOMA-Script equivalents, scrartcl, scrbook, and scrreprt, which default to smaller margins; or memoir
geometry

option for geometry package, e.g. margin=1in; repeat for multiple options:

---
geometry:
- top=30mm
- left=20mm
- heightrounded
...
indent
uses document class settings for indentation (the default LaTeX template otherwise removes indentation and adds space between paragraphs)
linestretch
adjusts line spacing using the setspace package, e.g. 1.25, 1.5
margin-left, margin-right, margin-top, margin-bottom
sets margins if geometry is not used (otherwise geometry overrides these)
pagestyle
control \pagestyle{}: the default article class supports plain (default), empty (no running heads or page numbers), and headings (section titles in running heads)
papersize
paper size, e.g. letter, a4
secnumdepth
numbering depth for sections (with --number-sections option or numbersections variable)

### Fonts

fontenc
allows font encoding to be specified through fontenc package (with pdflatex); default is T1 (see LaTeX font encodings guide)
fontfamily
font package for use with pdflatex: TeX Live includes many options, documented in the LaTeX Font Catalogue. The default is Latin Modern.
fontfamilyoptions

options for package used as fontfamily; repeat for multiple options. For example, to use the Libertine font with proportional lowercase (old-style) figures through the libertinus package:

---
fontfamily: libertinus
fontfamilyoptions:
- osf
- p
...
fontsize
font size for body text. The standard classes allow 10pt, 11pt, and 12pt. To use another size, set documentclass to one of the KOMA-Script classes, such as scrartcl or scrbook.
mainfont, sansfont, monofont, mathfont, CJKmainfont
font families for use with xelatex or lualatex: take the name of any system font, using the fontspec package. CJKmainfont uses the xecjk package.
mainfontoptions, sansfontoptions, monofontoptions, mathfontoptions, CJKoptions

options to use with mainfont, sansfont, monofont, mathfont, CJKmainfont in xelatex and lualatex. Allow for any choices available through fontspec; repeat for multiple options. For example, to use the TeX Gyre version of Palatino with lowercase figures:

---
mainfont: TeX Gyre Pagella
mainfontoptions:
- Numbers=Lowercase
- Numbers=Proportional
...
microtypeoptions
options to pass to the microtype package
add color to link text; automatically enabled if any of linkcolor, filecolor, citecolor, urlcolor, or toccolor are set
causes links to be printed as footnotes

### Front matter

lof, lot
include list of figures, list of tables
thanks
contents of acknowledgments footnote after document title
toc
toc-depth

### BibLaTeX Bibliographies

These variables function when using BibLaTeX for citation rendering.

biblatexoptions
list of options for biblatex
biblio-style
bibliography style, when used with --natbib and --biblatex.
biblio-title
bibliography title, when used with --natbib and --biblatex.
bibliography
bibliography to use for resolving references
natbiboptions
list of options for natbib

## Variables for ConTeXt

Pandoc uses these variables when creating a PDF with ConTeXt.

fontsize
font size for body text (e.g. 10pt, 12pt)
text to be placed in running header or footer (see ConTeXt Headers and Footers); repeat up to four times for different placement
indenting
controls indentation of paragraphs, e.g. yes,small,next (see ConTeXt Indentation); repeat for multiple options
interlinespace
adjusts line spacing, e.g. 4ex (using setupinterlinespace); repeat for multiple options
layout
options for page margins and text arrangement (see ConTeXt Layout); repeat for multiple options
color for links outside and inside a page, e.g. red, blue (see ConTeXt Color)
typeface style for links, e.g. normal, bold, slanted, boldslanted, type, cap, small
lof, lot
include list of figures, list of tables
mainfont, sansfont, monofont, mathfont
font families: take the name of any system font (see ConTeXt Font Switching)
margin-left, margin-right, margin-top, margin-bottom
sets margins, if layout is not used (otherwise layout overrides these)
pagenumbering
page number style and location (using setuppagenumbering); repeat for multiple options
papersize
paper size, e.g. letter, A4, landscape (see ConTeXt Paper Setup); repeat for multiple options
pdfa
adds to the preamble the setup necessary to generate PDF/A-1b:2005. To successfully generate PDF/A the required ICC color profiles have to be available and the content and all included files (such as images) have to be standard conforming. The ICC profiles can be obtained from ConTeXt ICC Profiles. See also ConTeXt PDFA for more details.
toc
whitespace
spacing between paragraphs, e.g. none, small (using setupwhitespace)

## Variables for wkhtmltopdf

Pandoc uses these variables when creating a PDF with wkhtmltopdf. The --css option also affects the output.

margin-left, margin-right, margin-top, margin-bottom
set the page margins
papersize
sets the PDF paper size

## Variables for man pages

adjusts text to left (l), right (r), center (c), or both (b) margins
footer
footer in man pages
hyphenate
if true (the default), hyphenation will be used
section
section number in man pages

## Variables for ms

fontfamily
font family (e.g. T or P)
indent
paragraph indent (e.g. 2m)
lineheight
line height (e.g. 12p)
pointsize
point size (e.g. 10p)

## Structural variables

Pandoc sets these variables automatically in response to options or document contents; users can also modify them. These vary depending on the output format, and include the following:

body
body of document
date-meta
the date variable converted to ISO 8601 YYYY-MM-DD, included in all HTML based formats (dzslides, epub, html, html4, html5, revealjs, s5, slideous, slidy). The recognized formats for date are: mm/dd/yyyy, mm/dd/yy, yyyy-mm-dd (ISO 8601), dd MM yyyy (e.g. either 02 Apr 2018 or 02 April 2018), MM dd, yyyy (e.g. Apr. 02, 2018 or April 02, 2018),yyyy[mm[dd]]](e.g.20180402, 201804 or 2018).
contents specified by -H/--include-in-header (may have multiple values)
include-before
contents specified by -B/--include-before-body (may have multiple values)
include-after
contents specified by -A/--include-after-body (may have multiple values)
meta-json
JSON representation of all of the document’s metadata. Field values are transformed to the selected output format.
numbersections
non-null value if -N/--number-sections was specified
sourcefile, outputfile

source and destination filenames, as given on the command line. sourcefile can also be a list if input comes from multiple files, or empty if input is from stdin. You can use the following snippet in your template to distinguish them:

$if(sourcefile)$
$for(sourcefile)$
$sourcefile$
$endfor$
$else$
(stdin)
$endif$

Similarly, outputfile can be - if output goes to the terminal.

If you need absolute paths, use e.g. $curdir$/$sourcefile$.

curdir
working directory from which pandoc is run.
toc
non-null value if --toc/--table-of-contents was specified
toc-title

## Using variables in templates

### Small caps

To write small caps, use the smallcaps class:

[Small caps]{.smallcaps}

Or, without the bracketed_spans extension:

<span class="smallcaps">Small caps</span>

For compatibility with other Markdown flavors, CSS is also supported:

<span style="font-variant:small-caps;">Small caps</span>

This will work in all output formats that support small caps.

## Math

#### Extension: tex_math_dollars

Anything between two $characters will be treated as TeX math. The opening$ must have a non-space character immediately to its right, while the closing $must have a non-space character immediately to its left, and must not be followed immediately by a digit. Thus,$20,000 and $30,000 won’t parse as math. If for some reason you need to enclose text in literal$ characters, backslash-escape them and they won’t be treated as math delimiters.

TeX math will be printed in all output formats. How it is rendered depends on the output format:

LaTeX
It will appear verbatim surrounded by $$...$$ (for inline math) or $...$ (for display math).
Markdown, Emacs Org mode, ConTeXt, ZimWiki
It will appear verbatim surrounded by $...$ (for inline math) or $$...$$ (for display math).
XWiki
It will appear verbatim surrounded by {{formula}}..{{/formula}}.
reStructuredText
It will be rendered using an interpreted text role :math:.
AsciiDoc
For AsciiDoc output format (-t asciidoc) it will appear verbatim surrounded by latexmath:[$...$] (for inline math) or [latexmath]++++$...$+++ (for display math). For AsciiDoctor output format (-t asciidoctor) the LaTex delimiters ($..$ and $..$) are omitted.
Texinfo
It will be rendered inside a @math command.
roff man, Jira markup
It will be rendered verbatim without $’s. MediaWiki, DokuWiki It will be rendered inside [itex] tags. Textile It will be rendered inside <span class="math"> tags. RTF, OpenDocument It will be rendered, if possible, using Unicode characters, and will otherwise appear verbatim. ODT It will be rendered, if possible, using MathML. DocBook If the --mathml flag is used, it will be rendered using MathML in an inlineequation or informalequation tag. Otherwise it will be rendered, if possible, using Unicode characters. Docx It will be rendered using OMML math markup. FictionBook2 If the --webtex option is used, formulas are rendered as images using CodeCogs or other compatible web service, downloaded and embedded in the e-book. Otherwise, they will appear verbatim. HTML, Slidy, DZSlides, S5, EPUB The way math is rendered in HTML will depend on the command-line options selected. Therefore see Math rendering in HTML above. ## Raw HTML #### Extension: raw_html Markdown allows you to insert raw HTML (or DocBook) anywhere in a document (except verbatim contexts, where <, >, and & are interpreted literally). (Technically this is not an extension, since standard Markdown allows it, but it has been made an extension so that it can be disabled if desired.) The raw HTML is passed through unchanged in HTML, S5, Slidy, Slideous, DZSlides, EPUB, Markdown, CommonMark, Emacs Org mode, and Textile output, and suppressed in other formats. For a more explicit way of including raw HTML in a Markdown document, see the raw_attribute extension. In the CommonMark format, if raw_html is enabled, superscripts, subscripts, strikeouts and small capitals will be represented as HTML. Otherwise, plain-text fallbacks will be used. Note that even if raw_html is disabled, tables will be rendered with HTML syntax if they cannot use pipe syntax. #### Extension: markdown_in_html_blocks Standard Markdown allows you to include HTML “blocks”: blocks of HTML between balanced tags that are separated from the surrounding text with blank lines, and start and end at the left margin. Within these blocks, everything is interpreted as HTML, not Markdown; so (for example), * does not signify emphasis. Pandoc behaves this way when the markdown_strict format is used; but by default, pandoc interprets material between HTML block tags as Markdown. Thus, for example, pandoc will turn <table> <tr> <td>*one*</td> <td>[a link](http://google.com)</td> </tr> </table> into <table> <tr> <td><em>one</em></td> <td><a href="http://google.com">a link</a></td> </tr> </table> whereas Markdown.pl will preserve it as is. There is one exception to this rule: text between <script> and <style> tags is not interpreted as Markdown. This departure from standard Markdown should make it easier to mix Markdown with HTML block elements. For example, one can surround a block of Markdown text with <div> tags without preventing it from being interpreted as Markdown. #### Extension: native_divs Use native pandoc Div blocks for content inside <div> tags. For the most part this should give the same output as markdown_in_html_blocks, but it makes it easier to write pandoc filters to manipulate groups of blocks. #### Extension: native_spans Use native pandoc Span blocks for content inside <span> tags. For the most part this should give the same output as raw_html, but it makes it easier to write pandoc filters to manipulate groups of inlines. #### Extension: raw_tex In addition to raw HTML, pandoc allows raw LaTeX, TeX, and ConTeXt to be included in a document. Inline TeX commands will be preserved and passed unchanged to the LaTeX and ConTeXt writers. Thus, for example, you can use LaTeX to include BibTeX citations: This result was proved in \cite{jones.1967}. Note that in LaTeX environments, like \begin{tabular}{|l|l|}\hline Age & Frequency \\ \hline 18--25 & 15 \\ 26--35 & 33 \\ 36--45 & 22 \\ \hline \end{tabular} the material between the begin and end tags will be interpreted as raw LaTeX, not as Markdown. For a more explicit and flexible way of including raw TeX in a Markdown document, see the raw_attribute extension. Inline LaTeX is ignored in output formats other than Markdown, LaTeX, Emacs Org mode, and ConTeXt. ### Generic raw attribute #### Extension: raw_attribute Inline spans and fenced code blocks with a special kind of attribute will be parsed as raw content with the designated format. For example, the following produces a raw roff ms block: {=ms} .MYMACRO blah blah  And the following produces a raw html inline element: This is <a>html</a>{=html} This can be useful to insert raw xml into docx documents, e.g. a pagebreak: {=openxml} <w:p> <w:r> <w:br w:type="page"/> </w:r> </w:p>  The format name should match the target format name (see -t/--to, above, for a list, or use pandoc --list-output-formats). Use openxml for docx output, opendocument for odt output, html5 for epub3 output, html4 for epub2 output, and latex, beamer, ms, or html5 for pdf output (depending on what you use for --pdf-engine). This extension presupposes that the relevant kind of inline code or fenced code block is enabled. Thus, for example, to use a raw attribute with a backtick code block, backtick_code_blocks must be enabled. The raw attribute cannot be combined with regular attributes. ## LaTeX macros #### Extension: latex_macros When this extension is enabled, pandoc will parse LaTeX macro definitions and apply the resulting macros to all LaTeX math and raw LaTeX. So, for example, the following will work in all output formats, not just LaTeX: \newcommand{\tuple}[1]{\langle #1 \rangle}$\tuple{a, b, c}$Note that LaTeX macros will not be applied if they occur inside a raw span or block marked with the raw_attribute extension. When latex_macros is disabled, the raw LaTeX and math will not have macros applied. This is usually a better approach when you are targeting LaTeX or PDF. Whether or not latex_macros is enabled, the macro definitions will still be passed through as raw LaTeX. Markdown allows links to be specified in several ways. If you enclose a URL or email address in pointy brackets, it will become a link: <http://google.com> <sam@green.eggs.ham> An inline link consists of the link text in square brackets, followed by the URL in parentheses. (Optionally, the URL can be followed by a link title, in quotes.) This is an [inline link](/url), and here's [one with a title](http://fsf.org "click here for a good time!"). There can be no space between the bracketed part and the parenthesized part. The link text can contain formatting (such as emphasis), but the title cannot. Email addresses in inline links are not autodetected, so they have to be prefixed with mailto: [Write me!](mailto:sam@green.eggs.ham) An explicit reference link has two parts, the link itself and the link definition, which may occur elsewhere in the document (either before or after the link). The link consists of link text in square brackets, followed by a label in square brackets. (There cannot be space between the two unless the spaced_reference_links extension is enabled.) The link definition consists of the bracketed label, followed by a colon and a space, followed by the URL, and optionally (after a space) a link title either in quotes or in parentheses. The label must not be parseable as a citation (assuming the citations extension is enabled): citations take precedence over link labels. Here are some examples: [my label 1]: /foo/bar.html "My title, optional" [my label 2]: /foo [my label 3]: http://fsf.org (The free software foundation) [my label 4]: /bar#special 'A title in single quotes' The URL may optionally be surrounded by angle brackets: [my label 5]: <http://foo.bar.baz> The title may go on the next line: [my label 3]: http://fsf.org "The free software foundation" Note that link labels are not case sensitive. So, this will work: Here is [my link][FOO] [Foo]: /bar/baz In an implicit reference link, the second pair of brackets is empty: See [my website][]. [my website]: http://foo.bar.baz Note: In Markdown.pl and most other Markdown implementations, reference link definitions cannot occur in nested constructions such as list items or block quotes. Pandoc lifts this arbitrary seeming restriction. So the following is fine in pandoc, though not in most other implementations: > My block [quote]. > > [quote]: /foo In a shortcut reference link, the second pair of brackets may be omitted entirely: See [my website]. [my website]: http://foo.bar.baz To link to another section of the same document, use the automatically generated identifier (see Heading identifiers). For example: See the [Introduction](#introduction). or See the [Introduction]. [Introduction]: #introduction Internal links are currently supported for HTML formats (including HTML slide shows and EPUB), LaTeX, and ConTeXt. ## Images A link immediately preceded by a ! will be treated as an image. The link text will be used as the image’s alt text: ![la lune](lalune.jpg "Voyage to the moon") ![movie reel] [movie reel]: movie.gif #### Extension: implicit_figures An image with nonempty alt text, occurring by itself in a paragraph, will be rendered as a figure with a caption. The image’s alt text will be used as the caption. ![This is the caption](/url/of/image.png) How this is rendered depends on the output format. Some output formats (e.g. RTF) do not yet support figures. In those formats, you’ll just get an image in a paragraph by itself, with no caption. If you just want a regular inline image, just make sure it is not the only thing in the paragraph. One way to do this is to insert a nonbreaking space after the image: ![This image won't be a figure](/url/of/image.png)\ Note that in reveal.js slide shows, an image in a paragraph by itself that has the stretch class will fill the screen, and the caption and figure tags will be omitted. Attributes can be set on links and images: An inline ![image](foo.jpg){#id .class width=30 height=20px} and a reference ![image][ref] with attributes. [ref]: foo.jpg "optional title" {#id .class key=val key2="val 2"} (This syntax is compatible with PHP Markdown Extra when only #id and .class are used.) For HTML and EPUB, all attributes except width and height (but including srcset and sizes) are passed through as is. The other writers ignore attributes that are not supported by their output format. The width and height attributes on images are treated specially. When used without a unit, the unit is assumed to be pixels. However, any of the following unit identifiers can be used: px, cm, mm, in, inch and %. There must not be any spaces between the number and the unit. For example: ![](file.jpg){ width=50% } • Dimensions are converted to inches for output in page-based formats like LaTeX. Dimensions are converted to pixels for output in HTML-like formats. Use the --dpi option to specify the number of pixels per inch. The default is 96dpi. • The % unit is generally relative to some available space. For example the above example will render to the following. • HTML: <img href="file.jpg" style="width: 50%;" /> • LaTeX: \includegraphics[width=0.5\textwidth,height=\textheight]{file.jpg} (If you’re using a custom template, you need to configure graphicx as in the default template.) • ConTeXt: \externalfigure[file.jpg][width=0.5\textwidth] • Some output formats have a notion of a class (ConTeXt) or a unique identifier (LaTeX \caption), or both (HTML). • When no width or height attributes are specified, the fallback is to look at the image resolution and the dpi metadata embedded in the image file. ## Divs and Spans Using the native_divs and native_spans extensions (see above), HTML syntax can be used as part of markdown to create native Div and Span elements in the pandoc AST (as opposed to raw HTML). However, there is also nicer syntax available: #### Extension: fenced_divs Allow special fenced syntax for native Div blocks. A Div starts with a fence containing at least three consecutive colons plus some attributes. The attributes may optionally be followed by another string of consecutive colons. The attribute syntax is exactly as in fenced code blocks (see Extension: fenced_code_attributes). As with fenced code blocks, one can use either attributes in curly braces or a single unbraced word, which will be treated as a class name. The Div ends with another line containing a string of at least three consecutive colons. The fenced Div should be separated by blank lines from preceding and following blocks. Example: ::::: {#special .sidebar} Here is a paragraph. And another. ::::: Fenced divs can be nested. Opening fences are distinguished because they must have attributes: ::: Warning :::::: This is a warning. ::: Danger This is a warning within a warning. ::: :::::::::::::::::: Fences without attributes are always closing fences. Unlike with fenced code blocks, the number of colons in the closing fence need not match the number in the opening fence. However, it can be helpful for visual clarity to use fences of different lengths to distinguish nested divs from their parents. #### Extension: bracketed_spans A bracketed sequence of inlines, as one would use to begin a link, will be treated as a Span with attributes if it is followed immediately by attributes: [This is *some text*]{.class key="val"} ## Footnotes #### Extension: footnotes Pandoc’s Markdown allows footnotes, using the following syntax: Here is a footnote reference,[^1] and another.[^longnote] [^1]: Here is the footnote. [^longnote]: Here's one with multiple blocks. Subsequent paragraphs are indented to show that they belong to the previous footnote. { some.code } The whole paragraph can be indented, or just the first line. In this way, multi-paragraph footnotes work like multi-paragraph list items. This paragraph won't be part of the note, because it isn't indented. The identifiers in footnote references may not contain spaces, tabs, or newlines. These identifiers are used only to correlate the footnote reference with the note itself; in the output, footnotes will be numbered sequentially. The footnotes themselves need not be placed at the end of the document. They may appear anywhere except inside other block elements (lists, block quotes, tables, etc.). Each footnote should be separated from surrounding content (including other footnotes) by blank lines. #### Extension: inline_notes Inline footnotes are also allowed (though, unlike regular notes, they cannot contain multiple paragraphs). The syntax is as follows: Here is an inline note.^[Inlines notes are easier to write, since you don't have to pick an identifier and move down to type the note.] Inline and regular footnotes may be mixed freely. ## Citations #### Extension: citations Using an external filter, pandoc-citeproc, pandoc can automatically generate citations and a bibliography in a number of styles. Basic usage is pandoc --filter pandoc-citeproc myinput.txt In order to use this feature, you will need to specify a bibliography file using the bibliography metadata field in a YAML metadata section, or --bibliography command line argument. You can supply multiple --bibliography arguments or set bibliography metadata field to YAML array, if you want to use multiple bibliography files. The bibliography may have any of these formats: Format File extension BibLaTeX .bib BibTeX .bibtex Copac .copac CSL JSON .json CSL YAML .yaml EndNote .enl EndNote XML .xml ISI .wos MEDLINE .medline MODS .mods RIS .ris Note that .bib can be used with both BibTeX and BibLaTeX files; use .bibtex to force BibTeX. Note that pandoc-citeproc --bib2json and pandoc-citeproc --bib2yaml can produce .json and .yaml files from any of the supported formats. In-field markup: In BibTeX and BibLaTeX databases, pandoc-citeproc parses a subset of LaTeX markup; in CSL YAML databases, pandoc Markdown; and in CSL JSON databases, an HTML-like markup: <i>...</i> italics <b>...</b> bold <span style="font-variant:small-caps;">...</span> or <sc>...</sc> small capitals <sub>...</sub> subscript <sup>...</sup> superscript <span class="nocase">...</span> prevent a phrase from being capitalized as title case pandoc-citeproc -j and -y interconvert the CSL JSON and CSL YAML formats as far as possible. As an alternative to specifying a bibliography file using --bibliography or the YAML metadata field bibliography, you can include the citation data directly in the references field of the document’s YAML metadata. The field should contain an array of YAML-encoded references, for example: --- references: - type: article-journal id: WatsonCrick1953 author: - family: Watson given: J. D. - family: Crick given: F. H. C. issued: date-parts: - - 1953 - 4 - 25 title: 'Molecular structure of nucleic acids: a structure for deoxyribose nucleic acid' title-short: Molecular structure of nucleic acids container-title: Nature volume: 171 issue: 4356 page: 737-738 DOI: 10.1038/171737a0 URL: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v171/n4356/abs/171737a0.html language: en-GB ... (pandoc-citeproc --bib2yaml can produce these from a bibliography file in one of the supported formats.) Citations and references can be formatted using any style supported by the Citation Style Language, listed in the Zotero Style Repository. These files are specified using the --csl option or the csl metadata field. By default, pandoc-citeproc will use the Chicago Manual of Style author-date format. The CSL project provides further information on finding and editing styles. To make your citations hyperlinks to the corresponding bibliography entries, add link-citations: true to your YAML metadata. Citations go inside square brackets and are separated by semicolons. Each citation must have a key, composed of ‘@’ + the citation identifier from the database, and may optionally have a prefix, a locator, and a suffix. The citation key must begin with a letter, digit, or _, and may contain alphanumerics, _, and internal punctuation characters (:.#$%&-+?<>~/). Here are some examples:

Blah blah [see @doe99, pp. 33-35; also @smith04, chap. 1].

Blah blah [@doe99, pp. 33-35, 38-39 and *passim*].

Blah blah [@smith04; @doe99].

pandoc-citeproc detects locator terms in the CSL locale files. Either abbreviated or unabbreviated forms are accepted. In the en-US locale, locator terms can be written in either singular or plural forms, as book, bk./bks.; chapter, chap./chaps.; column, col./cols.; figure, fig./figs.; folio, fol./fols.; number, no./nos.; line, l./ll.; note, n./nn.; opus, op./opp.; page, p./pp.; paragraph, para./paras.; part, pt./pts.; section, sec./secs.; sub verbo, s.v./s.vv.; verse, v./vv.; volume, vol./vols.; /¶¶; §/§§. If no locator term is used, “page” is assumed.

pandoc-citeproc will use heuristics to distinguish the locator from the suffix. In complex cases, the locator can be enclosed in curly braces (using pandoc-citeproc 0.15 and higher only):

[@smith{ii, A, D-Z}, with a suffix]
[@smith, {pp. iv, vi-xi, (xv)-(xvii)} with suffix here]

A minus sign (-) before the @ will suppress mention of the author in the citation. This can be useful when the author is already mentioned in the text:

Smith says blah [-@smith04].

You can also write an in-text citation, as follows:

@smith04 says blah.

@smith04 [p. 33] says blah.

If the style calls for a list of works cited, it will be placed in a div with id refs, if one exists:

::: {#refs}
:::

Otherwise, it will be placed at the end of the document. Generation of the bibliography can be suppressed by setting suppress-bibliography: true in the YAML metadata.

If you wish the bibliography to have a section heading, you can set reference-section-title in the metadata, or put the heading at the beginning of the div with id refs (if you are using it) or at the end of your document:

last paragraph...

# References

The bibliography will be inserted after this heading. Note that the unnumbered class will be added to this heading, so that the section will not be numbered.

If you want to include items in the bibliography without actually citing them in the body text, you can define a dummy nocite metadata field and put the citations there:

---
nocite: |
@item1, @item2
...

@item3

In this example, the document will contain a citation for item3 only, but the bibliography will contain entries for item1, item2, and item3.

It is possible to create a bibliography with all the citations, whether or not they appear in the document, by using a wildcard:

---
nocite: |
@*
...

For LaTeX output, you can also use natbib or biblatex to render the bibliography. In order to do so, specify bibliography files as outlined above, and add --natbib or --biblatex argument to pandoc invocation. Bear in mind that bibliography files have to be in respective format (either BibTeX or BibLaTeX).

## Non-pandoc extensions

The following Markdown syntax extensions are not enabled by default in pandoc, but may be enabled by adding +EXTENSION to the format name, where EXTENSION is the name of the extension. Thus, for example, markdown+hard_line_breaks is Markdown with hard line breaks.

#### Extension: old_dashes

Selects the pandoc <= 1.8.2.1 behavior for parsing smart dashes: - before a numeral is an en-dash, and -- is an em-dash. This option only has an effect if smart is enabled. It is selected automatically for textile input.

#### Extension: angle_brackets_escapable

Allow < and > to be backslash-escaped, as they can be in GitHub flavored Markdown but not original Markdown. This is implied by pandoc’s default all_symbols_escapable.

#### Extension: lists_without_preceding_blankline

Allow a list to occur right after a paragraph, with no intervening blank space.

#### Extension: four_space_rule

Selects the pandoc <= 2.0 behavior for parsing lists, so that four spaces indent are needed for list item continuation paragraphs.

Allow whitespace between the two components of a reference link, for example,

[foo] [bar].

#### Extension: hard_line_breaks

Causes all newlines within a paragraph to be interpreted as hard line breaks instead of spaces.

#### Extension: ignore_line_breaks

Causes newlines within a paragraph to be ignored, rather than being treated as spaces or as hard line breaks. This option is intended for use with East Asian languages where spaces are not used between words, but text is divided into lines for readability.

#### Extension: east_asian_line_breaks

Causes newlines within a paragraph to be ignored, rather than being treated as spaces or as hard line breaks, when they occur between two East Asian wide characters. This is a better choice than ignore_line_breaks for texts that include a mix of East Asian wide characters and other characters.

#### Extension: emoji

Parses textual emojis like :smile: as Unicode emoticons.

#### Extension: tex_math_single_backslash

Causes anything between $$and$$ to be interpreted as inline TeX math, and anything between $and$ to be interpreted as display TeX math. Note: a drawback of this extension is that it precludes escaping ( and [.

#### Extension: tex_math_double_backslash

Causes anything between \$$and \$$ to be interpreted as inline TeX math, and anything between \$and \$ to be interpreted as display TeX math.

#### Extension: markdown_attribute

By default, pandoc interprets material inside block-level tags as Markdown. This extension changes the behavior so that Markdown is only parsed inside block-level tags if the tags have the attribute markdown=1.

#### Extension: mmd_title_block

Enables a MultiMarkdown style title block at the top of the document, for example:

Title:   My title
Author:  John Doe
Date:    September 1, 2008
Comment: This is a sample mmd title block, with
a field spanning multiple lines.

See the MultiMarkdown documentation for details. If pandoc_title_block or yaml_metadata_block is enabled, it will take precedence over mmd_title_block.

#### Extension: abbreviations

Parses PHP Markdown Extra abbreviation keys, like

*[HTML]: Hypertext Markup Language

Note that the pandoc document model does not support abbreviations, so if this extension is enabled, abbreviation keys are simply skipped (as opposed to being parsed as paragraphs).

Makes all absolute URIs into links, even when not surrounded by pointy braces <...>.

Parses multimarkdown style key-value attributes on link and image references. This extension should not be confused with the link_attributes extension.

This is a reference ![image][ref] with multimarkdown attributes.

[ref]: http://path.to/image "Image title" width=20px height=30px
id=myId class="myClass1 myClass2"

Parses multimarkdown style heading identifiers (in square brackets, after the heading but before any trailing #s in an ATX heading).

#### Extension: compact_definition_lists

Activates the definition list syntax of pandoc 1.12.x and earlier. This syntax differs from the one described above under Definition lists in several respects:

• No blank line is required between consecutive items of the definition list.
• To get a “tight” or “compact” list, omit space between consecutive items; the space between a term and its definition does not affect anything.
• Lazy wrapping of paragraphs is not allowed: the entire definition must be indented four spaces.4

## Markdown variants

In addition to pandoc’s extended Markdown, the following Markdown variants are supported:

markdown_phpextra (PHP Markdown Extra)
markdown_github (deprecated GitHub-Flavored Markdown)
markdown_mmd (MultiMarkdown)
markdown_strict (Markdown.pl)

We also support commonmark and gfm (GitHub-Flavored Markdown, which is implemented as a set of extensions on commonmark).

Note, however, that commonmark and gfm have limited support for extensions. Only those listed below (and smart, raw_tex, and hard_line_breaks) will work. The extensions can, however, all be individually disabled. Also, raw_tex only affects gfm output, not input.

gfm (GitHub-Flavored Markdown)

# Producing slide shows with pandoc

You can use pandoc to produce an HTML + JavaScript slide presentation that can be viewed via a web browser. There are five ways to do this, using S5, DZSlides, Slidy, Slideous, or reveal.js. You can also produce a PDF slide show using LaTeX beamer, or slides shows in Microsoft PowerPoint format.

Here’s the Markdown source for a simple slide show, habits.txt:

% Habits
% John Doe
% March 22, 2005

# In the morning

## Getting up

- Turn off alarm
- Get out of bed

## Breakfast

- Eat eggs
- Drink coffee

# In the evening

## Dinner

- Eat spaghetti
- Drink wine

------------------

![picture of spaghetti](images/spaghetti.jpg)

## Going to sleep

- Get in bed
- Count sheep

To produce an HTML/JavaScript slide show, simply type

pandoc -t FORMAT -s habits.txt -o habits.html

where FORMAT is either s5, slidy, slideous, dzslides, or revealjs.

For Slidy, Slideous, reveal.js, and S5, the file produced by pandoc with the -s/--standalone option embeds a link to JavaScript and CSS files, which are assumed to be available at the relative path s5/default (for S5), slideous (for Slideous), reveal.js (for reveal.js), or at the Slidy website at w3.org (for Slidy). (These paths can be changed by setting the slidy-url, slideous-url, revealjs-url, or s5-url variables; see Variables for HTML slides, above.) For DZSlides, the (relatively short) JavaScript and CSS are included in the file by default.

With all HTML slide formats, the --self-contained option can be used to produce a single file that contains all of the data necessary to display the slide show, including linked scripts, stylesheets, images, and videos.

To produce a PDF slide show using beamer, type

pandoc -t beamer habits.txt -o habits.pdf

Note that a reveal.js slide show can also be converted to a PDF by printing it to a file from the browser.

To produce a Powerpoint slide show, type

pandoc habits.txt -o habits.pptx

## Structuring the slide show

By default, the slide level is the highest heading level in the hierarchy that is followed immediately by content, and not another heading, somewhere in the document. In the example above, level-1 headings are always followed by level-2 headings, which are followed by content, so the slide level is 2. This default can be overridden using the --slide-level option.

The document is carved up into slides according to the following rules:

• A horizontal rule always starts a new slide.

• A heading at the slide level always starts a new slide.

• Headings below the slide level in the hierarchy create headings within a slide.

• Headings above the slide level in the hierarchy create “title slides,” which just contain the section title and help to break the slide show into sections. Non-slide content under these headings will be included on the title slide (for HTML slide shows) or in a subsequent slide with the same title (for beamer).

• A title page is constructed automatically from the document’s title block, if present. (In the case of beamer, this can be disabled by commenting out some lines in the default template.)

These rules are designed to support many different styles of slide show. If you don’t care about structuring your slides into sections and subsections, you can just use level-1 headings for all each slide. (In that case, level-1 will be the slide level.) But you can also structure the slide show into sections, as in the example above.

Note: in reveal.js slide shows, if slide level is 2, a two-dimensional layout will be produced, with level-1 headings building horizontally and level-2 headings building vertically. It is not recommended that you use deeper nesting of section levels with reveal.js.

## Incremental lists

By default, these writers produce lists that display “all at once.” If you want your lists to display incrementally (one item at a time), use the -i option. If you want a particular list to depart from the default, put it in a div block with class incremental or nonincremental. So, for example, using the fenced div syntax, the following would be incremental regardless of the document default:

::: incremental

- Eat spaghetti
- Drink wine

:::

or

::: nonincremental

- Eat spaghetti
- Drink wine

:::

While using incremental and nonincremental divs are the recommended method of setting incremental lists on a per-case basis, an older method is also supported: putting lists inside a blockquote will depart from the document default (that is, it will display incrementally without the -i option and all at once with the -i option):

> - Eat spaghetti
> - Drink wine

Both methods allow incremental and nonincremental lists to be mixed in a single document.

## Inserting pauses

You can add “pauses” within a slide by including a paragraph containing three dots, separated by spaces:

# Slide with a pause

content before the pause

. . .

content after the pause

You can change the style of HTML slides by putting customized CSS files in $DATADIR/s5/default (for S5),$DATADIR/slidy (for Slidy), or $DATADIR/slideous (for Slideous), where$DATADIR is the user data directory (see --data-dir, above). The originals may be found in pandoc’s system data directory (generally $CABALDIR/pandoc-VERSION/s5/default). Pandoc will look there for any files it does not find in the user data directory. For dzslides, the CSS is included in the HTML file itself, and may be modified there. All reveal.js configuration options can be set through variables. For example, themes can be used by setting the theme variable: -V theme=moon Or you can specify a custom stylesheet using the --css option. To style beamer slides, you can specify a theme, colortheme, fonttheme, innertheme, and outertheme, using the -V option: pandoc -t beamer habits.txt -V theme:Warsaw -o habits.pdf Note that heading attributes will turn into slide attributes (on a <div> or <section>) in HTML slide formats, allowing you to style individual slides. In beamer, the only heading attribute that affects slides is the allowframebreaks class, which sets the allowframebreaks option, causing multiple slides to be created if the content overfills the frame. This is recommended especially for bibliographies: # References {.allowframebreaks} ## Speaker notes Speaker notes are supported in reveal.js and PowerPoint (pptx) output. You can add notes to your Markdown document thus: ::: notes This is my note. - It can contain Markdown - like this list ::: To show the notes window in reveal.js, press s while viewing the presentation. Speaker notes in PowerPoint will be available, as usual, in handouts and presenter view. Notes are not yet supported for other slide formats, but the notes will not appear on the slides themselves. ## Columns To put material in side by side columns, you can use a native div container with class columns, containing two or more div containers with class column and a width attribute: :::::::::::::: {.columns} ::: {.column width="40%"} contents... ::: ::: {.column width="60%"} contents... ::: :::::::::::::: ## Frame attributes in beamer Sometimes it is necessary to add the LaTeX [fragile] option to a frame in beamer (for example, when using the minted environment). This can be forced by adding the fragile class to the heading introducing the slide: # Fragile slide {.fragile} All of the other frame attributes described in Section 8.1 of the Beamer User’s Guide may also be used: allowdisplaybreaks, allowframebreaks, b, c, t, environment, label, plain, shrink, standout, noframenumbering. ## Background in reveal.js and beamer Background images can be added to self-contained reveal.js slideshows and to beamer slideshows. For the same image on every slide, use the configuration option background-image either in the YAML metadata block or as a command-line variable. (There are no other options in beamer and the rest of this section concerns reveal.js slideshows.) For reveal.js, you can instead use the reveal.js-native option parallaxBackgroundImage. You can also set parallaxBackgroundHorizontal and parallaxBackgroundVertical the same way and must also set parallaxBackgroundSize to have your values take effect. To set an image for a particular reveal.js slide, add {data-background-image="/path/to/image"} to the first slide-level heading on the slide (which may even be empty). In reveal.js’s overview mode, the parallaxBackgroundImage will show up only on the first slide. Other reveal.js background settings also work on individual slides, including data-background-size, data-background-repeat, data-background-color, data-transition, and data-transition-speed. See the reveal.js documentation for more details. For example in reveal.js: --- title: My Slideshow parallaxBackgroundImage: /path/to/my/background_image.png --- ## Slide One Slide 1 has background_image.png as its background. ## {data-background-image="/path/to/special_image.jpg"} Slide 2 has a special image for its background, even though the heading has no content. # Creating EPUBs with pandoc ## EPUB Metadata EPUB metadata may be specified using the --epub-metadata option, but if the source document is Markdown, it is better to use a YAML metadata block. Here is an example: --- title: - type: main text: My Book - type: subtitle text: An investigation of metadata creator: - role: author text: John Smith - role: editor text: Sarah Jones identifier: - scheme: DOI text: doi:10.234234.234/33 publisher: My Press rights: © 2007 John Smith, CC BY-NC ibooks: version: 1.3.4 ... The following fields are recognized: identifier Either a string value or an object with fields text and scheme. Valid values for scheme are ISBN-10, GTIN-13, UPC, ISMN-10, DOI, LCCN, GTIN-14, ISBN-13, Legal deposit number, URN, OCLC, ISMN-13, ISBN-A, JP, OLCC. title Either a string value, or an object with fields file-as and type, or a list of such objects. Valid values for type are main, subtitle, short, collection, edition, extended. creator Either a string value, or an object with fields role, file-as, and text, or a list of such objects. Valid values for role are MARC relators, but pandoc will attempt to translate the human-readable versions (like “author” and “editor”) to the appropriate marc relators. contributor Same format as creator. date A string value in YYYY-MM-DD format. (Only the year is necessary.) Pandoc will attempt to convert other common date formats. lang (or legacy: language) A string value in BCP 47 format. Pandoc will default to the local language if nothing is specified. subject A string value or a list of such values. description A string value. type A string value. format A string value. relation A string value. coverage A string value. rights A string value. cover-image A string value (path to cover image). css (or legacy: stylesheet) A string value (path to CSS stylesheet). page-progression-direction Either ltr or rtl. Specifies the page-progression-direction attribute for the spine element. ibooks iBooks-specific metadata, with the following fields: • version: (string) • specified-fonts: true|false (default false) • ipad-orientation-lock: portrait-only|landscape-only • iphone-orientation-lock: portrait-only|landscape-only • binding: true|false (default true) • scroll-axis: vertical|horizontal|default ## The epub:type attribute For epub3 output, you can mark up the heading that corresponds to an EPUB chapter using the epub:type attribute. For example, to set the attribute to the value prologue, use this markdown: # My chapter {epub:type=prologue} Which will result in: <body epub:type="frontmatter"> <section epub:type="prologue"> <h1>My chapter</h1> Pandoc will output <body epub:type="bodymatter">, unless you use one of the following values, in which case either frontmatter or backmatter will be output. epub:type of first section epub:type of body prologue frontmatter abstract frontmatter acknowledgments frontmatter copyright-page frontmatter dedication frontmatter credits frontmatter keywords frontmatter imprint frontmatter contributors frontmatter other-credits frontmatter errata frontmatter revision-history frontmatter titlepage frontmatter halftitlepage frontmatter seriespage frontmatter foreword frontmatter preface frontmatter seriespage frontmatter titlepage frontmatter appendix backmatter colophon backmatter bibliography backmatter index backmatter ## Linked media By default, pandoc will download media referenced from any <img>, <audio>, <video> or <source> element present in the generated EPUB, and include it in the EPUB container, yielding a completely self-contained EPUB. If you want to link to external media resources instead, use raw HTML in your source and add data-external="1" to the tag with the src attribute. For example: <audio controls="1"> <source src="http://example.com/music/toccata.mp3" data-external="1" type="audio/mpeg"> </source> </audio> # Creating Jupyter notebooks with pandoc When creating a Jupyter notebook, pandoc will try to infer the notebook structure. Code blocks with the class code will be taken as code cells, and intervening content will be taken as Markdown cells. Attachments will automatically be created for images in Markdown cells. Metadata will be taken from the jupyter metadata field. For example: --- title: My notebook jupyter: nbformat: 4 nbformat_minor: 5 kernelspec: display_name: Python 2 language: python name: python2 language_info: codemirror_mode: name: ipython version: 2 file_extension: ".py" mimetype: "text/x-python" name: "python" nbconvert_exporter: "python" pygments_lexer: "ipython2" version: "2.7.15" --- # Lorem ipsum **Lorem ipsum** dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nunc luctus bibendum felis dictum sodales.  code print("hello")  ## Pyout  code from IPython.display import HTML HTML(""" <script> console.log("hello"); </script> <b>HTML</b> """)  ## Image This image ![image](myimage.png) will be included as a cell attachment. If you want to add cell attributes, group cells differently, or add output to code cells, then you need to include divs to indicate the structure. You can use either fenced divs or native divs for this. Here is an example: :::::: {.cell .markdown} # Lorem **Lorem ipsum** dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Nunc luctus bibendum felis dictum sodales. :::::: :::::: {.cell .code execution_count=1}  {.python} print("hello")  ::: {.output .stream .stdout}  hello  ::: :::::: :::::: {.cell .code execution_count=2}  {.python} from IPython.display import HTML HTML(""" <script> console.log("hello"); </script> <b>HTML</b> """)  ::: {.output .execute_result execution_count=2} {=html} <script> console.log("hello"); </script> <b>HTML</b> hello  ::: :::::: If you include raw HTML or TeX in an output cell, use the [raw attribute][Extension: fenced_attribute], as shown in the last cell of the example above. Although pandoc can process “bare” raw HTML and TeX, the result is often interspersed raw elements and normal textual elements, and in an output cell pandoc expects a single, connected raw block. To avoid using raw HTML or TeX except when marked explicitly using raw attributes, we recommend specifying the extensions -raw_html-raw_tex+raw_attribute when translating between Markdown and ipynb notebooks. Note that options and extensions that affect reading and writing of Markdown will also affect Markdown cells in ipynb notebooks. For example, --wrap=preserve will preserve soft line breaks in Markdown cells; --atx-headers will cause ATX-style headings to be used; and --preserve-tabs will prevent tabs from being turned to spaces. # Syntax highlighting Pandoc will automatically highlight syntax in fenced code blocks that are marked with a language name. The Haskell library skylighting is used for highlighting. Currently highlighting is supported only for HTML, EPUB, Docx, Ms, and LaTeX/PDF output. To see a list of language names that pandoc will recognize, type pandoc --list-highlight-languages. The color scheme can be selected using the --highlight-style option. The default color scheme is pygments, which imitates the default color scheme used by the Python library pygments (though pygments is not actually used to do the highlighting). To see a list of highlight styles, type pandoc --list-highlight-styles. If you are not satisfied with the predefined styles, you can use --print-highlight-style to generate a JSON .theme file which can be modified and used as the argument to --highlight-style. To get a JSON version of the pygments style, for example: pandoc --print-highlight-style pygments > my.theme Then edit my.theme and use it like this: pandoc --highlight-style my.theme If you are not satisfied with the built-in highlighting, or you want highlight a language that isn’t supported, you can use the --syntax-definition option to load a KDE-style XML syntax definition file. Before writing your own, have a look at KDE’s repository of syntax definitions. To disable highlighting, use the --no-highlight option. # Custom Styles Custom styles can be used in the docx and ICML formats. ## Output By default, pandoc’s docx and ICML output applies a predefined set of styles for blocks such as paragraphs and block quotes, and uses largely default formatting (italics, bold) for inlines. This will work for most purposes, especially alongside a reference.docx file. However, if you need to apply your own styles to blocks, or match a preexisting set of styles, pandoc allows you to define custom styles for blocks and text using divs and spans, respectively. If you define a div or span with the attribute custom-style, pandoc will apply your specified style to the contained elements. So, for example using the bracketed_spans syntax, [Get out]{custom-style="Emphatically"}, he said. would produce a docx file with “Get out” styled with character style Emphatically. Similarly, using the fenced_divs syntax, Dickinson starts the poem simply: ::: {custom-style="Poetry"} | A Bird came down the Walk--- | He did not know I saw--- ::: would style the two contained lines with the Poetry paragraph style. For docx output, styles will be defined in the output file as inheriting from normal text, if the styles are not yet in your reference.docx. If they are already defined, pandoc will not alter the definition. This feature allows for greatest customization in conjunction with pandoc filters. If you want all paragraphs after block quotes to be indented, you can write a filter to apply the styles necessary. If you want all italics to be transformed to the Emphasis character style (perhaps to change their color), you can write a filter which will transform all italicized inlines to inlines within an Emphasis custom-style span. For docx output, you don’t need to enable any extensions for custom styles to work. ## Input The docx reader, by default, only reads those styles that it can convert into pandoc elements, either by direct conversion or interpreting the derivation of the input document’s styles. By enabling the styles extension in the docx reader (-f docx+styles), you can produce output that maintains the styles of the input document, using the custom-style class. Paragraph styles are interpreted as divs, while character styles are interpreted as spans. For example, using the custom-style-reference.docx file in the test directory, we have the following different outputs: Without the +styles extension:$ pandoc test/docx/custom-style-reference.docx -f docx -t markdown
This is some text.

This is text with an *emphasized* text style. And this is text with a
**strengthened** text style.

> Here is a styled paragraph that inherits from Block Text.

And with the extension:

\$ pandoc test/docx/custom-style-reference.docx -f docx+styles -t markdown

::: {custom-style="FirstParagraph"}
This is some text.
:::

::: {custom-style="BodyText"}
This is text with an [emphasized]{custom-style="Emphatic"} text style.
And this is text with a [strengthened]{custom-style="Strengthened"}
text style.
:::

::: {custom-style="MyBlockStyle"}
> Here is a styled paragraph that inherits from Block Text.
:::

With these custom styles, you can use your input document as a reference-doc while creating docx output (see below), and maintain the same styles in your input and output files.

# Custom writers

Pandoc can be extended with custom writers written in lua. (Pandoc includes a lua interpreter, so lua need not be installed separately.)

To use a custom writer, simply specify the path to the lua script in place of the output format. For example:

pandoc -t data/sample.lua

Creating a custom writer requires writing a lua function for each possible element in a pandoc document. To get a documented example which you can modify according to your needs, do

pandoc --print-default-data-file sample.lua

# A note on security

If you use pandoc to convert user-contributed content in a web application, here are some things to keep in mind:

1. Although pandoc itself will not create or modify any files other than those you explicitly ask it create (with the exception of temporary files used in producing PDFs), a filter or custom writer could in principle do anything on your file system. Please audit filters and custom writers very carefully before using them.

2. If your application uses pandoc as a Haskell library (rather than shelling out to the executable), it is possible to use it in a mode that fully isolates pandoc from your file system, by running the pandoc operations in the PandocPure monad. See the document Using the pandoc API for more details.

3. Pandoc’s parsers can exhibit pathological performance on some corner cases. It is wise to put any pandoc operations under a timeout, to avoid DOS attacks that exploit these issues. If you are using the pandoc executable, you can add the command line options +RTS -M512M -RTS (for example) to limit the heap size to 512MB.

4. The HTML generated by pandoc is not guaranteed to be safe. If raw_html is enabled for the Markdown input, users can inject arbitrary HTML. Even if raw_html is disabled, users can include dangerous content in attributes for headings, spans, and code blocks. To be safe, you should run all the generated HTML through an HTML sanitizer.

# Authors

Copyright 2006–2019 John MacFarlane (jgm@berkeley.edu). Released under the GPL, version 2 or greater. This software carries no warranty of any kind. (See COPYRIGHT for full copyright and warranty notices.) For a full list of contributors, see the file AUTHORS.md in the pandoc source code.

1. The point of this rule is to ensure that normal paragraphs starting with people’s initials, like

B. Russell was an English philosopher.

do not get treated as list items.

This rule will not prevent

(C) 2007 Joe Smith

from being interpreted as a list item. In this case, a backslash escape can be used:

(C\) 2007 Joe Smith
↩︎
2. I have been influenced by the suggestions of David Wheeler.↩︎

3. This scheme is due to Michel Fortin, who proposed it on the Markdown discussion list.↩︎

4. To see why laziness is incompatible with relaxing the requirement of a blank line between items, consider the following example:

bar
:    definition
foo
:    definition

Is this a single list item with two definitions of “bar,” the first of which is lazily wrapped, or two list items? To remove the ambiguity we must either disallow lazy wrapping or require a blank line between list items.↩︎